2019 11 06


Due to the diversity of old trees, large habitats, rare and protected species of flora and fauna, Punios Silas is one of the most valuable forests not only in Lithuania but also in Europe.

Punios Silas is surrounded by the river Nemunas. It’s exceptional values are: expressive relief, valuable habitats, rare and protected species of flora and fauna. The protection of Punisos Silas began of the interwar period. In order to protect the unique array of forests from post-war cutting in 1945, it had granted the status of a nature reserve. Currently, sixth of Punios Silas area (457 ha) is declared as a natural reserve, and the rest of the territory is a botanical-zoological reserve.

The most valuable part of Punia Silo is the reserved area, in which the person does not interfere the natural development of the forest ecosystem for almost 50 years. As a result, the reserve created a unique ecosystem off very old trees. Such ecosystems are very rare. In order to avoid irreparable damage to rare and protected plants, animal species and their habitats, visitation in the reserve area is limited and is only possible with the assistance of a specialist.

Punios Silas abounds with astounding pines, fir trees, powerful oaks, spectacular maples, linden trees, harnesses and other trees. The huge forests with oaks of 200 years old and older are given greatness to this forest. Oak elders, whose age is more than 400 years old, have been declared natural monuments. We can be proud that in the Nemunas Loops Regional Park one of the oldest in the country, according to the average forest age, is Punia Silas.

115 red listed species of the Lithuanian Red Book was found in Punios Silas. Punios Silas is the only place in Lithuania where mushrooms like Piptoporus quercinus, Inonotus leporinus, Evernia divaricate, Ramalina thrausta are found. In Punios Silas you can also found Lunaria rediviva, Poa remota, Cardamine bulbifera, Equisetum telmateia, Huperzia selagh, Dactylorhiza fuchsii, Arcticummorosum , Corydalis cava and Corydalis intermedia, Vicia pisiformis, Lobaria pulmonaria populations.

The ecological balance of natural forests are now supported in reserves and in natural forest habitats. Only these multifaceted, multi-species and intermediate stands, the abundance of old large trees, and the high quantities of dead wood in various stages of decay have survived in these naturally-occurring forest areas. All of this creates a very favorable microclimate for a myriad of rare, rare, recorded in the Lithuanian Red Book. The whole of Punios Silas is part of the European ecological network Natura 2000.

In Punios Silas forest and trees have become home to more than ten thousand species of organisms (from single-leaf mushrooms, lichens, mosses and other plants to insects, birds, large mammals).

Uneven wood is one of the most important structural elements of natural forests, which is associated with various organisms and a large number of rare and protected forest species. It provides asylum to five thousand different types, i.e. one fifth of all species found in Lithuania.